Monday, 23 July 2018 09:06

The red metal explosion

~ Six reasons why copper demand is set to soar in the coming years~

With an anticipated global market worth US$171.96 billion by 2023, demand for copper is on a major upswing. And as emerging economies develop further, and more applications for copper are found, demand for ‘the red metal’ will rapidly increase. But what exactly is spurring this surge in demand? Here, Melissa Albeck, CEO of online materials databaseMatmatch, gives six reasons why copper is critical to the future of technology and industry — and our planet.

Sustainability
Two-thirds of the copper produced since 1900 is still in productive use. Few other resources can match that figure, and as environmental sustainability rises to the top of the global agenda, it makes sense that manufacturers will want to be seen as vanguards for positive change.

Copper’s infinite recyclability not only helps mitigate pollution caused by the production of materials such as wood and plastic, but it’s also key to the recycling of minerals such as silver, gold, and nickel. Every year, 8.5 million tonnes of copper are recycled.

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Electric vehicles
According to a report commissioned by the International Copper Association (ICA) for IDTechEx, the number of roadworthy electric and hybrid vehicles is expected to reach 27 million by 2027.

Compared to the internal combustion engine, battery-powered vehicles require approximately 60kg more copper, the result of which is a projected 600 kilotonnes in additional copper demand by 2027.

Water crisis
All over the world, people face severe droughts, flooding, and contaminated water supplies. Population growth, global warming, inefficient infrastructure – if radical action isn’t taken to counter these trends, the crisis will only worsen.

As a durable, recyclable and impermeable material, copper will prove critical in the delivery of clean water and resolve one of Earth’s biggest humanitarian challenges.

Global electrification
According to a 2017 study by the International Energy Agency (IEA), sectors previously confined to fossil fuels are becoming increasingly electrified. The result is millions of new appliances, cooling systems, and vehicles in need of power; power conducted and distributed by copper. Add in the global demand for renewable energy, and this demand will only surge further as suppliers source copper for wind farms and solar energy systems.

Health concerns
Global life expectancy may be rising, but challenges driven by antibiotic resistance mean we must work harder than ever to minimise the risk of public infection. Copper is antimicrobial by nature, making it an ideal choice of material for use in public areas such as hospitals, schools, and gyms.

In fact, Bloomberg Markets believes public health applications may see the surge in demand for copper by as much as 1 million tons per year over the next 20 years.

‘Green’ architecture
Just as we’ve seen in the automotive and energy industries, architects are turning to copper components to decrease the environmental impact of new buildings. In North America, copper has even been used to clad, adorn and embellish buildings to aid durability and sustainability. Copper’s corrosion-resistant properties can even help these buildings withstand damage from extreme weather conditions.

These are just a handful of the ways that copper will prove invaluable to innovation and product development in the coming years. We recently released an e-book exploring the rise of copper and the factors driving demand, which you can download for free from the Matmatch website for more information on this rapidly growing, fascinating material.

Published inProduction

Aluminium has a long and successful history in the aerospace industry. As far back as the 19th century, Count Ferdinand Zeppelin made the frames of his iconic airships from it. Aluminium was chosen as it is lightweight, strong, and has a high resistance to corrosion. In this article, Marta Danylenko, marketing manager at online materials database Matmatch, explains the common alloys used in aerospace engineering and their applications, as well as some less well-known ones, and what the future holds for aerospace materials.

A brief history

The Wright brothers chose aluminium for the cylinder block and other engine parts for their first manned flight in 1903. It was also the first time an aluminium alloy had been heat-strengthened. This discovery prompted the preference for aluminium in aerospace engineering.

Over the years, the aerospace industry has become more demanding in what it needs from materials. The advent of jumbo jets and long-haul international flights meant that the shell and engine parts had to be extremely durable and resistant to fatigue. This has led to the development and use of many different types of aluminium alloys.

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Commonly used aluminium alloys in the aerospace industry

Second only to AA 2024 in terms of its popularity in aerospace engineering, AA2014 is a strong and tough metal and is suitable for arc and resistance welding. However, it has poor corrosion resistance, and for that reason, it is often found in the internal structure or framework of aircraft rather than the shell.

Aluminium alloy 2024 is probably the most widely used alloy for aircraft. It was developed after experiments allowing small amounts of cold deformation and a period of natural ageing led to an increased yield strength. 2024 is a high-grade alloy with excellent fatigue resistance. It’s used primarily in sheet forms such as for the fuselage and wings due to its high tensile strength of roughly 470 MPa.

Of the non-heat treatable grades of alloy, AA 5052 provides the highest strength and is highly ductile, so it can be formed into a variety of shapes including engine components and fittings. It is also highly corrosion resistant.

AA 6061 alloy is very common in light aircraft, especially homemade ones. It’s easily welded and manipulated, is very light and fairly strong, making it ideal for fuselage and wings.

AA 7050 has high corrosion resistance and maintains strength in wide sections. This makes it more resistant to fractures than other alloys. It’s commonly used in wing skins and fuselage, especially in military aircraft.

AA 7068 is the strongest alloy available today. Combined with its low mass, it is perfect for military aircraft that need to stand up to tough conditions and attacks.

With similar strength properties to steel due to its high levels of Zinc, AA 7075 has excellent fatigue resistance. It can be machined easily which meant it was a popular choice for fighter planes in World War II, including the Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter used by the Japanese Imperial Navy on their carriers between 1940 and 1945. It is still used frequently in military aircraft to this day.

Less common aluminium alloys in the aerospace industry

If you need an aluminium alloy that provides maximum strength at elevated temperatures, AA 2219 is the best bet. It was used for the external fuel tank of the first successfully launched space shuttle, Columbia. It has good weldability, but the welds need heat-treating to preserve resistance against corrosion.

AA 6063 is mainly used for aesthetic and architectural finishes and can be found in the finer details of an aircraft. It is used primarily for intricate extrusions. AA 7475 is highly resistant to fracture and fatigue. Due to its toughness, it is sometimes found in fuselage bulkheads of larger aircraft.

The future of aluminium alloys in aerospace

Industry experts are positive about the future of aluminium alloys in aerospace. It is projected that demand for aluminium will double over the next decade.

By 2025, there will be a global demand of 80 million tonnes. For this reason, the aerospace industry is increasingly looking to recycled alloys to satisfy their high demand. There is also a push for innovation in the materials used, as well as the design structure of aircraft.

For instance, aluminum-lithium alloys have been developed for the aerospace industry to reduce the weight of aircraft and therefore improve performance of the aircraft. Al-Lithium alloys are advanced materials because of their low density, high specific modulus, and excellent fatigue and cryogenic toughness properties.

As developing countries become more involved in the aerospace industry, and with increased investment, there will be further innovation in aluminium alloys over the years to come.

If you’re looking for a tool to compare engineering material properties, Matmatch’s online database helps you to find materials, compare them side-by-side and choose materials that perfectly fit the intended application, the budget for the project and your goals. Visit Matmatch’s online database here

Published inSheet Metal

Aluminium has a long and successful history in the aerospace industry. As far back as the 19th century, Count Ferdinand Zeppelin made the frames of his iconic airships from it. Aluminium was chosen as it is lightweight, strong, and has a high resistance to corrosion. In this article, Marta Danylenko, marketing manager at online materials database Matmatch, explains the common alloys used in aerospace engineering and their applications, as well as some less well-known ones, and what the future holds for aerospace materials.

A brief history

The Wright brothers chose aluminium for the cylinder block and other engine parts for their first manned flight in 1903. It was also the first time an aluminium alloy had been heat-strengthened. This discovery prompted the preference for aluminium in aerospace engineering.

Over the years, the aerospace industry has become more demanding in what it needs from materials. The advent of jumbo jets and long-haul international flights meant that the shell and engine parts had to be extremely durable and resistant to fatigue. This has led to the development and use of many different types of aluminium alloys.

2018 05 08 104006

Commonly used aluminium alloys in the aerospace industry

Second only to AA 2024 in terms of its popularity in aerospace engineering, AA2014 is a strong and tough metal and is suitable for arc and resistance welding. However, it has poor corrosion resistance, and for that reason, it is often found in the internal structure or framework of aircraft rather than the shell.

Aluminium alloy 2024 is probably the most widely used alloy for aircraft. It was developed after experiments allowing small amounts of cold deformation and a period of natural ageing led to an increased yield strength. 2024 is a high-grade alloy with excellent fatigue resistance. It’s used primarily in sheet forms such as for the fuselage and wings due to its high tensile strength of roughly 470 MPa.

Of the non-heat treatable grades of alloy, AA 5052 provides the highest strength and is highly ductile, so it can be formed into a variety of shapes including engine components and fittings. It is also highly corrosion resistant.

AA 6061 alloy is very common in light aircraft, especially homemade ones. It’s easily welded and manipulated, is very light and fairly strong, making it ideal for fuselage and wings.

AA 7050 has high corrosion resistance and maintains strength in wide sections. This makes it more resistant to fractures than other alloys. It’s commonly used in wing skins and fuselage, especially in military aircraft.

AA 7068 is the strongest alloy available today. Combined with its low mass, it is perfect for military aircraft that need to stand up to tough conditions and attacks.

With similar strength properties to steel due to its high levels of Zinc, AA 7075 has excellent fatigue resistance. It can be machined easily which meant it was a popular choice for fighter planes in World War II, including the Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter used by the Japanese Imperial Navy on their carriers between 1940 and 1945. It is still used frequently in military aircraft to this day.

Less common aluminium alloys in the aerospace industry

If you need an aluminium alloy that provides maximum strength at elevated temperatures, AA 2219 is the best bet. It was used for the external fuel tank of the first successfully launched space shuttle, Columbia. It has good weldability, but the welds need heat-treating to preserve resistance against corrosion.

AA 6063 is mainly used for aesthetic and architectural finishes and can be found in the finer details of an aircraft. It is used primarily for intricate extrusions. AA 7475 is highly resistant to fracture and fatigue. Due to its toughness, it is sometimes found in fuselage bulkheads of larger aircraft.

The future of aluminium alloys in aerospace

Industry experts are positive about the future of aluminium alloys in aerospace. It is projected that demand for aluminium will double over the next decade.

By 2025, there will be a global demand of 80 million tonnes. For this reason, the aerospace industry is increasingly looking to recycled alloys to satisfy their high demand. There is also a push for innovation in the materials used, as well as the design structure of aircraft.

For instance, aluminum-lithium alloys have been developed for the aerospace industry to reduce the weight of aircraft and therefore improve performance of the aircraft. Al-Lithium alloys are advanced materials because of their low density, high specific modulus, and excellent fatigue and cryogenic toughness properties.

As developing countries become more involved in the aerospace industry, and with increased investment, there will be further innovation in aluminium alloys over the years to come.

If you’re looking for a tool to compare engineering material properties, Matmatch’s online database helps you to find materials, compare them side-by-side and choose materials that perfectly fit the intended application, the budget for the project and your goals. Visit Matmatch’s online database here

Published inSheet Metal